Survey Clinical Presentation (Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)

Over view of the possible clinical presentations of minimal spinal dysraphism, especially of the observed skin findings, of the orthopedic and neurological deficits, and of the embarrassements of micturation and defecation. Skin findings can be observed in more than 2/3 of the cases with minimal spinal dysraphism; on the other hand, they may be absent. Radiological signs of minimal spinal dysraphism are increased interpeduncular distances that are not obvious until compared to the normal values; divided or missing vertebral arches or sacral defects. On the other hand, the spine and sacrum may be completely normal. In case of missing cutaneous and/or skeletal abnormalities, the occurrence of other deficits may point to the possibility of minimal spinal dysraphism. Minimal spinal dysraphism should be considered mainly in case of treatment-resistant unilateral pathologies (e.g. a unilateral clubfoot), a seemingly functional voiding disorder, or refractory constipation.