Staging in Nephroblastoma

The definition of the tumor stage of a nephroblastoma (so-called staging) is performed prior to surgery by a complete radiographic evaluation, and in addition during tumor nephrectomy. The operative staging includes inspection and palpation of the contralateral normal kidney and a standardized sampling of the retroperitoneal lymph nods, and - less frequently - a tumor biopsy of the kidney, or of another localized tumor.