Additional Examinations (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)

The plain x-rays of the cervical spine should include all seven cervical vertebra and two planes in orthograde directions. The presented lateral x-ray of the cervical spine does not allow an exclusion of vertebral malformations because the x-ray is somewhat twisted and not orthograde. Other additional examinations depend on the differential diagnosis which is in the foreground, and the history, local and general findings of the individual case are necessary for their indication. In work-up of every torticollis, plain x-rays of the cervical spine are obligatory, allowing to exclude a Klippel-Feil syndrome. They are not sufficient in each case of trauma, and depending on the clinical examination and follow-up, special and functional x-rays are necessary without/with fluoroscopy, CT and/or MRI.