Clinical Presentation (VUR)

Possible clinical presentations of reflux. Today, some cases of reflux are diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound and following postnatal additional work-up examinations prior to the clinical manifestation of reflux. Otherwise, recurrent uncomplicated or simple and complicated upper urinary tract infections are the most frequently observed clinical presentation. Less often, a vesicoureteral reflux may be hidden by a primary or secondary enuresis. In general, already the first complicated upper urinary tract infection needs work-up examinations including the exclusion of reflux in both sexes. In case of simple urinary tract infection, work-ups should be performed earlier in boys than in girls. The chance to diagnose a urological anomaly is higher in boys, and the disposition to urinary tract infections without obvious malformation is higher in girls.