Graduation (VUR)

Drawings of the graduation of reflux (= classification according to the degree of vesicoureteral reflux) corresponding to an international consensus. The degree of reflux increases from left to right. Grade I and II (on the left in the figure) are slight types of reflux; during micturation the ureter, or in addition, the pelvis is filling. In grade III (center of the figure) the ureter, pelvis, and calices are dilated; the fornices are sharply depicted. In grade IV also the fornices are dilated and blunt, and in grade V (on the right in the picture) the dilatation and deformation are grotesque, and the ureter is tortuous. The two already mentioned grades are severe types of reflux. $$harn_01??££Compare left-sided reflux grade II-III§§ and $$harn_01??££right-sided reflux grade IV-V, §§ and $$harn_3??££left-sided reflux grade IV-V §§.