Operative Findings (Therapy of Reflux)

Operative findings in a 5-year-old boy. After opening the bladder, the left orifice is clearly visible. Its shape is horseshoe- to golf hole-like ($$harn_1??nr=2££see alternate figure§§). Above the ureteral orifice the mucous membrane exhibits some redness. Typical operative findings: Anomaly of the orifice in a case of persistent reflux with a continuous gaping ostium on the left side. The bladder has some inflammation which is recognizable by the redness of the mucous membrane (hemorrgagic diathesis and vasodilatation).