Complete Ureteral Duplication 1 (UTI/VUR)

harn_22a_n.jpg and harn_22b_n.jpg: Surgical preparation from a 4-month-old boy with a complete ureteral duplication of the right side. harn_22a_n.jpg: Lower renal part with fetal lobulation and a length of 4.5 cm (compare with harn_11_n.jpg). Figure harn_22b_n.jpg: Grotesque dilatation and thickening of the opened lower renal pelvis. The diagnosis is ureteral duplication of the right side with entrance of both ureters in the bladder. The smaller upper renal part (upper pole) could be preserved during surgery, whereas the lower renal part was removed (lower heminephrectomy) due to advanced reflux nephropathy (no contrast excretion in the IVU) together with the refluxing ureter.