Pneumothorax (Differential Diagnosis Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

atno_17a_n.jpg: This 1-day-old newborn with respiratory distress syndrome (cyanosis, respiratory movements of the nostrils and stress) has a swelling of the facial and thoracic soft tissue with crepitation on palpation and hypersonorous sound on percussion. Pneumothorax of varying etiology is a frequent cause of respiratory distress syndrome in the neonate; in this case, it is combined with pneumomediastinum and emphysema of the skin, which explains the described signs. atno_17b_n.jpg: Chest x-ray of the same patient; the superior mediastinum is large, and the lungs are surrounded by a large and bright margin without any lung structure. The left lung is collapsed more than the right one. Recurrent pneumothoraces are a frequent complication in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (Bochdalek's diaphragmatic hernia).